Differential diagnoses involving "Classical" vs. "Operant" class-conditioned learning
Classical conditioning This field was founded by Ivan Pavlov in 1897. Here is how I usually retell Pavlov's story: Pavlov was the first scientist to directly study the behavioural and learning psychology of dogs. He had a whole kennel of dogs that he experimented on. Pavlov wanted to try to understand the effect of the timing of stimuli on how the dogs learned. Every day at noon, they always got lunch - and that also means they were conditioned to salivate every day at lunch.
Long leashes are less punishing than short leashes
Please see the title of this article and let it sink in a bit. I don't recommend flexi-leashes or harnesses that attach at the dog's back as they both encourage the dog to pull. I recommend walking on a loose leash where the dog immediately recognizes and responds to leash tension by approaching the owner and lessening that tension -- a dog who can give its owner attention and responsiveness at any time.
"Training" versus "Management": How do they contribute to behavioural change?
"Training" is a repeated exercise that changes over time to develop a skill or set of skills. "Management" is the set of all things we must do as owners to promote the health, longevity, and contentedness of our dogs. This includes: how we teach safety, security, confidence and trust, how we discipline, how we care for veterinary needs, how and what we feed, how we groom, how we play, how we exercise, rest, sleep and snuggle, and; how we use equipment, tools and resources. Bo